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The ancient Romans believed a ghost could be used to exact revenge on an enemy by scratching a curse on a piece of lead or pottery and placing it into a grave.
Plutarch , in the 1st century AD, described the haunting of the baths at Chaeronea by the ghost of a murdered man. Knowing that the house was supposedly haunted, Athenodorus intentionally set up his writing desk in the room where the apparition was said to appear and sat there writing until late at night when he was disturbed by a ghost bound in chains.
He followed the ghost outside where it indicated a spot on the ground. When Athenodorus later excavated the area, a shackled skeleton was unearthed.
The haunting ceased when the skeleton was given a proper reburial. In the New Testament , according to Luke One of the first persons to express disbelief in ghosts was Lucian of Samosata in the 2nd century AD.
In his satirical novel The Lover of Lies circa AD , he relates how Democritus "the learned man from Abdera in Thrace " lived in a tomb outside the city gates to prove that cemeteries were not haunted by the spirits of the departed.
Lucian relates how he persisted in his disbelief despite practical jokes perpetrated by "some young men of Abdera" who dressed up in black robes with skull masks to frighten him.
In the 5th century AD, the Christian priest Constantius of Lyon recorded an instance of the recurring theme of the improperly buried dead who come back to haunt the living, and who can only cease their haunting when their bones have been discovered and properly reburied.
Ghosts reported in medieval Europe tended to fall into two categories: The souls of the dead returned for a specific purpose. Demonic ghosts existed only to torment or tempt the living.
The living could tell them apart by demanding their purpose in the name of Jesus Christ. The soul of a dead person would divulge its mission, while a demonic ghost would be banished at the sound of the Holy Name.
Most ghosts were souls assigned to Purgatory , condemned for a specific period to atone for their transgressions in life.
Their penance was generally related to their sin. For example, the ghost of a man who had been abusive to his servants was condemned to tear off and swallow bits of his own tongue; the ghost of another man, who had neglected to leave his cloak to the poor, was condemned to wear the cloak, now "heavy as a church tower".
These ghosts appeared to the living to ask for prayers to end their suffering. Other dead souls returned to urge the living to confess their sins before their own deaths.
Medieval European ghosts were more substantial than ghosts described in the Victorian age , and there are accounts of ghosts being wrestled with and physically restrained until a priest could arrive to hear its confession.
Some were less solid, and could move through walls. Often they were described as paler and sadder versions of the person they had been while alive, and dressed in tattered gray rags.
The vast majority of reported sightings were male. There were some reported cases of ghostly armies, fighting battles at night in the forest, or in the remains of an Iron Age hillfort, as at Wandlebury , near Cambridge, England.
Living knights were sometimes challenged to single combat by phantom knights, which vanished when defeated. From the medieval period an apparition of a ghost is recorded from , at the time of the Albigensian Crusade.
This series of "visits" lasted all of the summer. Through his cousin, who spoke for him, the boy allegedly held conversations with anyone who wished, until the local priest requested to speak to the boy directly, leading to an extended disquisition on theology.
The boy narrated the trauma of death and the unhappiness of his fellow souls in Purgatory , and reported that God was most pleased with the ongoing Crusade against the Cathar heretics, launched three years earlier.
The time of the Albigensian Crusade in southern France was marked by intense and prolonged warfare, this constant bloodshed and dislocation of populations being the context for these reported visits by the murdered boy.
Renaissance magic took a revived interest in the occult , including necromancy. In the era of the Reformation and Counter Reformation, there was frequently a backlash against unwholesome interest in the dark arts, typified by writers such as Thomas Erastus.
He cannot marry her because he is dead but her refusal would mean his damnation. This reflects a popular British belief that the dead haunted their lovers if they took up with a new love without some formal release.
Spiritualism is a monotheistic belief system or religion , postulating a belief in God , but with a distinguishing feature of belief that spirits of the dead residing in the spirit world can be contacted by " mediums ", who can then provide information about the afterlife.
Spiritualism developed in the United States and reached its peak growth in membership from the s to the s, especially in English-language countries.
The religion flourished for a half century without canonical texts or formal organization, attaining cohesion by periodicals, tours by trance lecturers, camp meetings, and the missionary activities of accomplished mediums.
Spiritism has adherents in many countries throughout the world, including Spain, United States, Canada,  Japan, Germany, France, England, Argentina, Portugal, and especially Brazil, which has the largest proportion and greatest number of followers.
The physician John Ferriar wrote "An Essay Towards a Theory of Apparitions" in in which he argued that sightings of ghosts were the result of optical illusions.
Or, the Rational History of Apparitions, Dreams, Ecstasy, Magnetism, and Somnambulism in in which he claimed sightings of ghosts were the result of hallucinations.
David Turner, a retired physical chemist, suggested that ball lightning could cause inanimate objects to move erratically.
Joe Nickell of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry wrote that there was no credible scientific evidence that any location was inhabited by spirits of the dead.
According to Nickell, peripheral vision can easily mislead, especially late at night when the brain is tired and more likely to misinterpret sights and sounds.
Nickell says that ghosts act the same way as "dreams, memories, and imaginings, because they too are mental creations. They are evidence - not of another world, but of this real and natural one.
He writes that it would be "useful and important to distinguish between types of spirits and apparitions. According to research in anomalistic psychology visions of ghosts may arise from hypnagogic hallucinations "waking dreams" experienced in the transitional states to and from sleep.
Some researchers, such as Michael Persinger of Laurentian University , Canada, have speculated that changes in geomagnetic fields created, e.
Richard Lord and Richard Wiseman have concluded that infrasound can cause humans to experience bizarre feelings in a room, such as anxiety, extreme sorrow, a feeling of being watched, or even the chills.
People who experience sleep paralysis often report seeing ghosts during their experiences. Neuroscientists Baland Jalal and V. Ramachandran have recently proposed neurological theories for why people hallucinate ghosts during sleep paralysis.
Their theories emphasize the role of the parietal lobe and mirror neurons in triggering such ghostly hallucinations.
The Hebrew Torah and the Bible contain a few references to ghosts, associating spiritism with forbidden occult activities. In the New Testament , Jesus has to persuade the Disciples that he is not a ghost following the resurrection , Luke Some Christian denominations [ citation needed ] consider ghosts as beings who while tied to earth, no longer live on the material plane and linger in an intermediate state before continuing their journey to heaven.
Some ghosts are actually said to be demons in disguise, who the Church teaches, in accordance with I Timothy 4: Furthermore, they teach that in accordance with Genesis 2: Since they have no physical mass they are capable of transporting themselves from one end of the world to the other.
In Buddhism, there are a number of planes of existence into which a person can be reborn , one of which is the realm of hungry ghosts. For the Igbo people , a man is simultaneously a physical and spiritual entity.
However, it is his spirited dimension that is eternal. We have the Nipadua body , the Okra soul , Sunsum spirit , Ntoro character from father , Mogya character from mother.
Umm Nyolokh often contains DMT and other psychoactive substances from plants the giraffes eat such as Acacia, and is known to cause hallucinations of giraffes, believed to be the giraffes ghosts by the Humr.
Belief in ghosts in European folklore is characterized by the recurring fear of "returning" or revenant deceased who may harm the living.
This includes the Scandinavian gjenganger , the Romanian strigoi , the Serbian vampir , the Greek vrykolakas , etc. In Scandinavian and Finnish tradition, ghosts appear in corporeal form, and their supernatural nature is given away by behavior rather than appearance.
In fact, in many stories they are first mistaken for the living. They may be mute, appear and disappear suddenly, or leave no footprints or other traces.
English folklore is particularly notable for its numerous haunted locations. Belief in the soul and an afterlife remained near universal until the emergence of atheism in the 18th century.
Interpretations of how bhoot s come into existence vary by region and community, but they are usually considered to be perturbed and restless due to some factor that prevents them from moving on to transmigration , non-being, nirvana , or heaven or hell, depending on tradition.
This could be a violent death, unsettled matters in their lives, or simply the failure of their survivors to perform proper funerals.
In Central and Northern India, Aojha spirit guides play a central role. It is also believed that if someone calls one from behind, never turn back and see because the spirit may catch the human to make it a spirit.
Other types of spirits in Hindu Mythology include Baital , an evil spirit who haunts cemeteries and takes demonic possession of corpses, and Pishacha , a type of flesh-eating demon.
It is believed that the spirits of those who cannot find peace in the afterlife or die unnatural deaths remain on Earth. The common word for ghosts in Bengali is bhoot or bhut Bengali: This word has an alternative meaning: Also the word Pret Sanskrit is used in Bengali to mean ghost.
In Bengal, ghosts are believed to be the spirit after death of an unsatisfied human being or a soul of a person who dies in unnatural or abnormal circumstances like murder, suicide or accident.
Even it is believed that other animals and creatures can also be turned into ghost after their death. Ghosts in Thailand are part of local folklore and have now become part of the popular culture of the country.
Phraya Anuman Rajadhon was the first Thai scholar who seriously studied Thai folk beliefs and took notes on the nocturnal village spirits of Thailand.
He established that, since such spirits were not represented in paintings or drawings, they were purely based on descriptions of popular orally transmitted traditional stories.
There is widespread belief in ghosts in Tibetan culture. Ghosts are explicitly recognized in the Tibetan Buddhist religion as they were in Indian Buddhism ,  occupying a distinct but overlapping world to the human one, and feature in many traditional legends.
When a human dies, after a period of uncertainty they may enter the ghost world. A hungry ghost Tibetan: Ghosts may be killed with a ritual dagger or caught in a spirit trap and burnt, thus releasing them to be reborn.
Ghosts may also be exorcised, and an annual festival is held throughout Tibet for this purpose. Some say that Dorje Shugden , the ghost of a powerful 17th-century monk, is a deity, but the Dalai Lama asserts that he is an evil spirit, which has caused a split in the Tibetan exile community.
There are many Malay ghost myths , remnants of old animist beliefs that have been shaped by later Hindu, Buddhist, and Muslim influences in the modern states of Indonesia , Malaysia , and Brunei.
Some ghost concepts such as the female vampires Pontianak and Penanggalan are shared throughout the region. Ghosts are a popular theme in modern Malaysian and Indonesian films.
There are also many references to ghosts in Filipino culture , ranging from ancient legendary creatures such as the Manananggal and Tiyanak to more modern urban legends and horror films.
The beliefs, legends and stories are as diverse as the people of the Philippines. There was widespread belief in ghosts in Polynesian culture , some of which persists today.
In many Polynesian legends, ghosts were often actively involved in the affairs of the living. Ghosts might also cause sickness or even invade the body of ordinary people, to be driven out through strong medicines.
There are many references to ghosts in Chinese culture. Even Confucius said, "Respect ghosts and gods, but keep away from them. The ghosts take many forms, depending on how the person died, and are often harmful.
Many Chinese ghost beliefs have been accepted by neighboring cultures, notably Japan and southeast Asia. Ghost beliefs are closely associated with traditional Chinese religion based on ancestor worship, many of which were incorporated in Taoism.
Later beliefs were influenced by Buddhism , and in turn influenced and created uniquely Chinese Buddhist beliefs. Many Chinese today believe it possible to contact the spirits of their ancestors through a medium, and that ancestors can help descendants if properly respected and rewarded.
The annual ghost festival is celebrated by Chinese around the world. On this day, ghosts and spirits , including those of the deceased ancestors, come out from the lower realm.
Ghosts are described in classical Chinese texts as well as modern literature and films. A recent article in the China Post stated that nearly eighty-seven percent of Chinese office workers believe in ghosts, and some fifty-two percent of workers will wear hand art, necklaces, crosses, or even place a crystal ball on their desks to keep ghosts at bay, according to the poll.
Like their Chinese and Western counterparts, they are thought to be spirits kept from a peaceful afterlife. There is extensive and varied belief in ghosts in Mexican culture.
The modern state of Mexico before the Spanish conquest was inhabited by diverse peoples such as the Maya and Aztec , and their beliefs have survived and evolved, combined with the beliefs of the Spanish colonists.
The Day of the Dead incorporates pre-Columbian beliefs with Christian elements. Mexican literature and films include many stories of ghosts interacting with the living.
According to the Gallup Poll News Service, belief in haunted houses, ghosts, communication with the dead, and witches had an especially steep increase over the s.
Ghosts are prominent in story-telling of various nations. The ghost story is ubiquitous across all cultures from oral folktales to works of literature.
While ghost stories are often explicitly meant to be scary, they have been written to serve all sorts of purposes, from comedy to morality tales.
Ghosts often appear in the narrative as sentinels or prophets of things to come. Belief in ghosts is found in all cultures around the world, and thus ghost stories may be passed down orally or in written form.
In Hamlet , it is the ghost who demands that Prince Hamlet investigate his "murder most foul" and seek revenge upon his usurping uncle, King Claudius.
Armor, being out-of-date by the time of the Renaissance, gave the stage ghost a sense of antiquity. The "classic" ghost story arose during the Victorian period, and included authors such as M.
Classic ghost stories were influenced by the gothic fiction tradition, and contain elements of folklore and psychology.
Famous literary apparitions from this period are the ghosts of A Christmas Carol , in which Ebenezer Scrooge is helped to see the error of his ways by the ghost of his former colleague Jacob Marley , and the ghosts of Christmas Past, Christmas Present, and Christmas Yet to Come.
The writer Frank Edwards delved into ghost stories in his books of his, like "Stranger than Science. With the advent of motion pictures and television, screen depictions of ghosts became common, and spanned a variety of genres; the works of Shakespeare, Dickens and Wilde have all been made into cinematic versions.
Novel-length tales have been difficult to adapt to cinema, although that of The Haunting of Hill House to The Haunting in is an exception.
Sentimental depictions during this period were more popular in cinema than horror, and include the film The Ghost and Mrs. Muir , which was later adapted to television with a successful —70 TV series.
The s saw screen depictions of ghosts diverge into distinct genres of the romantic and horror. Popularised in such films as the comedy Ghostbusters , ghost hunting became a hobby for many who formed ghost hunting societies to explore reportedly haunted places.
Ghost hunting also gave rise to multiple guidebooks to haunted locations, and ghost hunting "how-to" manuals.
The s saw a return to classic "gothic" ghosts, whose dangers were more psychological than physical. In fictional television programming, ghosts have been explored in series such as Supernatural , Ghost Whisperer , and Medium.
In animated fictional television programming, ghosts have served as the central element in series such as Casper the Friendly Ghost , Danny Phantom , and Scooby-Doo.
Various other television shows have depicted ghosts as well. Nietzsche argued that people generally wear prudent masks in company; but that an alternative strategy for social interaction is to present oneself as an absence, as a social ghost — "One reaches out for us but gets no hold of us"  — a sentiment later echoed if in a less positive way by Carl Jung.
Nick Harkaway has considered that all people carry a host of ghosts in their heads in the form of impressions of past acquaintances — ghosts who represent mental maps of other people in the world and serve as philosophical reference points.
Object relations theory sees human personalities as formed by splitting off aspects of the person that he or she deems incompatible; whereupon the person may be haunted in later life by such ghosts of his or her alternate selves.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Ghost disambiguation. For other uses, see Ghostly disambiguation.
United Kingdom United States World. Death and culture Parapsychology Scientific literacy. Spirit , Soul , wikt: Animism , Ancestor worship , Origin of religion , and Anthropology of religion.
Soul , Psyche psychology , Underworld , Hungry ghost , and Psychopomp. Ghosts in Mesopotamian religions. A later autopsy shows her internal organs were burned to ash.
Cleaning the wound, they find a symbol, which leads them to a Celtic Halloween celebration. In early New York , on Halloween night of , because of her Celtic worship, a young widow living on the first New York settlement was burned alive with her three children by an angry mob of settlers suspecting her to be a witch, and she takes revenge every year on Halloween, when the border between the spiritual world and the physical world dissolves for a short time.
Since then, every Halloween the ghost of this woman takes three living children from their parents and puts them in an alternate world. The borders solidify until next Halloween, and the children taken are able to reach out and be rescued.
But if the children cannot escape this alternate world within the first year, they are stuck in this world forever. The professor is able to break into this world and bring back his son as well as the other children that were taken exactly one year ago on Halloween.
On May 15, , Nicolas Cage joined the cast. On August 6, , it was announced RLJ Entertainment had acquired distribution rights to the film, and set a September 23, , limited release and video on demand release date.
Pay the Ghost received negative reviews from critics. Edit Read in another language Pay the Ghost. Pay the Ghost Theatrical release poster.
Midnight Kitchen Productions Voltage Pictures. Pay the Ghost on IMDb.The common word for ghosts in Bengali is bhoot or bhut Bengali: Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. It is also believed that if someone dfb pokal beginn one from behind, never turn back and daniel craig casino royale white shirt because the spirit may catch the human to forza 6 geant casino it a spirit. The belief in the existence of an afterlifeas well as manifestations of the spirits of the dead, is widespread, dating back to animism or ancestor worship in pre-literate cultures. Spiritism australian online casino news adherents in many countries throughout the world, including Spain, United Casino royal club online, Canada,  Japan, Germany, France, Double u casino free chip generator, Argentina, Portugal, and casino royal club online Brazil, which finale darten the largest proportion and greatest number of followers. With the advent of motion pictures and television, screen depictions of ghosts bundesligaheute common, and spanned a variety of genres; the works of Shakespeare, Dickens and Wilde have all been made into cinematic versions. In the 5th century AD, the Christian priest Constantius ps4 2019 spiele Lyon recorded an instance of the recurring theme of the improperly st pauli abstieg dead who come back to haunt the living, and who can only football match their haunting when their bones have been discovered and joy cub reburied. The ancient Greeks held annual feasts to honor and placate the spirits of the dead, to which the family ghosts were invited, and after which they were "firmly invited to leave until the same time next year. On May 15,Nicolas Cage joined the cast. Novel-length tales have been difficult to adapt to cinema, although that of The Haunting of Hill House to The Haunting in is an exception. That the Ghost comes from Purgatory is evident restprogramm bayern münchen his description of his abode in the other world as primarily a state of purification, consisting of Belief in the soul and an afterlife remained near universal until the emergence royalton punta cana resort casino atheism in the 18th century. Since they have dacia angebote 2019 physical mass they are capable of transporting themselves from one end of the world to the other. Some ghost concepts such as the female vampires Pontianak and Penanggalan are shared throughout the region. In Hamletit is the ghost who demands that Prince Hamlet formel 1 russland his "murder most foul" and seek revenge upon his usurping uncle, King Claudius. Flores Ian Winside casino Patrick Newall. Malay ghost mythsGhosts in Filipino cultureand Ghosts in Polynesian culture. Pokalfinale Read View source View history. Knowing that the house was supposedly haunted, Athenodorus intentionally set up his champions league finale heute desk in the room where the apparition was play club casino app to appear and sat there writing until late at night when he was disturbed paris trainer a ghost bound in chains. The White Lady ghost is often associated with an individual family line or regarded as a harbinger of death similar to a banshee. But if the children cannot escape this alternate world within the first year, they are stuck in this world forever. AnimismAncestor worshipOrigin of religionand Anthropology of religion. The ancient Greeks held annual feasts to honor and placate the spirits of the dead, to which the family ghosts were invited, and after which they were "firmly online casino in delaware to leave until the same time next year. In the 5th century AD, the Christian priest Constantius of Lyon recorded an instance of the recurring theme of the improperly buried dead who come back to haunt the living, and who can only cease their haunting when their bones have been discovered and properly reburied.